Whaikōrero is the art of formal speech making. Whaikōrero is generally made by men and is an activity of Māori elders on the marae during the pōwhiri process. Skilled orators are able to build the mana of their people, they are able to entertain and warm the hearts of their manuhiri with the eloquence and imagery of their words.
Today whaikōrero can be done in many places for gatherings, meetings or social events. Some iwi have women who whaikōrero. The whaikōrero gives the speaker the opportunity to use their skills in Te Reo Māori , to pay tribute to their ancestors, to address issues, to educate, and to pass on knowledge.
While there are variations in format generally there is a common pattern:
Tauparapara (ritual chant)
Mihi ki te whare tupuna (acknowledgement of the ancestral house)
Mihi ki a Papatūānuku (acknowledgement of Mother Earth)
Mihi ki te hunga mate (acknowledgement of the dead)
Mihi ki te hunga ora (acknowledgement of the living)
Te take o te hui (purpose of the meeting)
Protocols determining the order of speakers vary between iwi (tribe) and hapū (sub-tribe). There are two types of speaking order for the delivery of whaikōrero used by different tribes: tau-utuutu and pāeke:
- Tau-utuutu is when the speaking order alternates. It begins with a local speaker, followed by a visiting speaker, another local speaker and so on. The last speaker is from the tangata whenua.
- Pāeke, where all but one of the host speakers speak first. Then the right of speech is handed to the visitors. A final speaker from the hosts completes the whaikōrero phase of the pōwhiri. http://www.korero.maori.nz/forlearners/protocols/whaikorero.html
This page lists a selection of resources relating to whaikōrero and the tradition of Maori formal speech making.
Manukau Libraries has a Māori collection in each of its libraries, with the most extensive collection held at the South Auckland Research Centre.
All resources are available from Auckland Libraries.
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- Akona te reo Māori (2005). Hamilton : Kaitoro Publishers. (NZ CD 499.442 AKO)
- Akona! Module 1, He mihi (2004). Tahuri, Benita. Auckland : Te Pikinga Reo. (NZ 499.442 TAH)
- Beginners guide to visiting the marae (DVD) (2008). Auckland : New Zealand Television Archive. (NZ DVD 390.08999442 BEG)
- Collins Māori phrasebook & dictionary Tauroa, P. (2006). Auckland : HarperCollins. (NZ 499.442 TAU)
- Communicating one to one = Kanohi ki te kanohi (2006). Roberts, J. Cambridge : Wotz Wot. (NZ 499.442 ROB)
- Kirehu tau, kiwaha tuku. (2000). Ngaruawahia: Kia Ata Mai Educational Trust (NZ CD MAO KIR)
- Ko te whai-kōrero, ko te whai mātauranga mai i tō wairua, to hinengaro me tō tinana : tihei mauri ora! = Speech-making is seeking knowledge from your spiritual being, mental being and physical being : I sneeze for this is the essence of life! (NZ 808.51 KO)
- Learning Māori as a Pākehā: (a book by a Pākehā for a Pākehā who wants to show respect for people who identify as Māori (2007) Fisher, T. Lower Hutt : Tony Fisher. (NZ 499.442 FIS)
- Manu kōrero, part one (DVD) (1998) Auckland : New Zealand Television Archive. (NZ DVD 499.442 MAN)
- Māori protocols in Parliament = Ko ngā tikanga Māori i roto Te Whāre Pāremata (2003). Wellington : Office of the Clerk. (NZ 328.10993 MAO)
- Reo Māori o naianei, Book 1 and 2. (2004) Ryan, P.M. Auckland : Harcourt Education. (NZ 499.442 RYA)
- Te Koanga festival (DVD): Spring festival (2006). Manukau: Owairoa Film Studio. (NZ DVD 790.2 TEK)
- Te Reo Rangatira: a course in Māori for sixth and seventh forms (1984) Karetu, T.S. Wellington : Government Printer. (NZ 499.442 KAR)
- Tukua : he tikanga Māori Roa, T. (1987). Auckland : Heinemann. (J 572.9931 ROA)
- Waiata, fragments of narrative and proverbs. (Greys Manuscripts GNZ MMSS 70). (1854). (929.1 GRE)
- Whaikōrero, tauparapara 1 Rerekura, S. (2007). Auckland : Te Whare wānanga o Ngapuhi-nui-tonu. (NZ 499.442 RER)
- Whaikōreo, Hunga mate 1: a study of the sacred references to the dead; and formal conclusions in indigenous oral literature Rerekura, S. (2008). Auckland : Te Whare wānanga o Ngapuhi-nui-tonu. (NZ 499.442 RER)
- Whaikōreo: ceremonial farewells to the dead. (1981). Wellington : Radio New Zealand. (393.089994 WHA)
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